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Plants produce phylogenetically and spatially restricted, as well as structurally diverse specialized metabolites via multistep metabolic pathways. Hallmarks of specialized metabolic evolution include enzymatic promiscuity and recruitment of primary metabolic enzymes and examples of genomic clustering of pathway genes. Solanaceae glandular trichomes produce defensive acylsugars, with sidechains that vary in length across the family. We describe a tomato gene cluster on chromosome 7 involved in medium chain acylsugar accumulation due to trichome specific acyl-CoA synthetase and enoyl-CoA hydratase genes. This cluster co-localizes with a tomato steroidal alkaloid gene cluster and is syntenic to a chromosome 12 region containing another acylsugar pathway gene. We reconstructed the evolutionary events leading to this gene cluster and found that its phylogenetic distribution correlates with medium chain acylsugar accumulation across the Solanaceae.
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Tuesday, April 30,These weekly garden notes are written by Kim Willis, unless another author is noted, and the opinions expressed in these notes are her opinions and do not represent any other individual, group or organizations opinions. This newsletter is coming to you a bit later in the day than usual because my baby chicks arrived a day early and I had to get them settled this am. What says spring more than baby chicks? They are mesmerizing to watch too, you can waste a lot of time watching chickens.
Another sign of spring is all the baby calves on the farms around me. They are so cute when they are tiny babies. When I went out to feed early this morning I snuck in a quick trip to my pond. The forsythia was starting to bloom out there and when I went into town to pick up the chicks I saw magnolias beginning to bloom.
My apricot will probably bloom tomorrow and the plums are not far behind. Tiny green leaves are starting to show up on some trees and shrubs, the coming warm weather should have them popping out like crazy. I spent some time putting up new bluebird houses this weekend and was pleased to see a pair of tree swallows checking them out this morning. They like the bluebird houses. I have still not seen any orioles or hummingbirds but my feeders for them are out.
Work is progressing on my new vegetable garden. We have three of the five beds filled with soil and I planted potatoes in one. I also planted romaine lettuce, spinach and beets in a mixture for greens. I have been digging up huge clumps of comfrey that had been growing at the fringe of the spruce that we cut down to make room for the new garden.
I want to get them dug out instead of just trying to smother them with wood chips or soil. The roots of some of those clumps were 3 inches in diameter. Talk about an invasive plant! I talked to my sister a few days ago and she was telling me she dug out all her iris, daylilies, coreopsis and other perennials in front of her house because she wanted just one simple thing in the whole bed.
I asked her what she replaced them with and she proudly told me bee balm, a garden shop employee had recommended it. I asked a few discrete questions to make sure she really got beebalm and it seems she has. She bought 4 small plants, which the same helpful employee told her would spread out and fill out the whole bed in no time.
You can guess that this sister is not much of a gardener by now. I also told her about powdery mildew, which can make bee balm look pretty bad. But she remained firm, the garden shop employee had given her his recommendations and that was it. The point of the story is that there are a lot of sales people in the garden shops and many of them are not too knowledgeable, especially those in big box stores.
As you are out and about in the greenhouses this spring selecting plants, remember to do your own research on plants you are not familiar with. If you have a smart phone I see that many plant tags now have a code to scan that will give you more information about the plant. Try to pick up plants that have a tag, there is usually some general information on them and when you get the plant home you will have that information as well as a plant name.
Also check the hardiness zone rating of plants that you buy. And there are varieties of some common garden plants that are hardy in our zones while other varieties of the same plant are not. Buddleias, roses, azaleas, lavender, perennial salvias are just a few plants that have hardy and not so hardy varieties. April is considered a good month for planting trees. Arbor Day is in April.
So for the last newsletter of April I am going to present some tree information. The breath of trees. The gases contain biogenic aerosols -- particulate matter that originates from plants. Tree poop When exposed to oxygen in the atmosphere these particulates cling to other particulates in the air, gradually growing larger, forming clouds that reflect the suns heat, cooling the earth and forming raindrops.
This function of trees emitting gases is helpful, and works to offset global warming, because as the world warms, trees produce even more gases. Rain falls more frequently and regularly where there are forests because of favorable cloud formation. And even in urban areas where they are not as concentrated, trees provide a cooling effect as well as making your property more valuable and desirable. But there is a bad side to the gases that trees emit also.
Trees emit isoprene, a chemical manufactured to protect leaves from oxygen damage and temperature fluctuations. A study recently completed by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill found that isoprene unites with air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides emitted by cars and coal burning plants to form harmful particulates at least partially responsible for lung cancer, asthma, and other lung disorders.
These isoprene-nitrogen oxide combinations also produce smog and are damaging to the environment in other ways. When trees are attacked by insects, particularly bark beetles, the trees produce chemicals to protect themselves and these chemicals are released into the atmosphere. This chemical is also part of unhealthy smog and haze and harmful to those breathing it.
It gets worse. Researchers at Queensland University of Technology in Australia found that trees produce electrically charged ions in their vicinity. One of the molecules that charged ions like to collect is radon. Radon is produced when rocks containing radioactive material gradually breakdown in the soil.
It is water soluble and radon is often found in ground water. Radon emissions from the soil as a gas and from the ground water vary in concentration from one area to the next depending on the rocks underlying the area. Michigan has some high radon areas, where radon seeps into basements. Radon is known to cause cancer. Trees with deep root systems act as pumps for radon, bringing the radon in ground water and from the soil to the surface, discharging it attached to charged ions in their gas admissions when they transpire or breathe.
Recent research suggests in areas with deep rooted trees, tree transpiration accounts for more than a third of the radon in the air. How to plant a tree. In fact there is more reason than ever to plant trees. Trees help regulate the climate and they become even more important as our climate changes. The small health risks associated with trees breathing are generally caused by our own pollution of the planet. While trees may emit radon when they emit water vapor during transpiration they are also unlocking water stored in the soil and returning it to the atmosphere.
A real estate agent will tell you that large, mature, well cared for trees add value to your property and make it easier to sell. And who can deny the beauty of trees as well as all the useful products they supply us with, including food? It is said that you plant trees for your grandchildren. All I know is that I continue to plant trees because I like them. I have planted several this year, in part because I have had to remove a few. One should always replace a tree that you have had to remove, maybe with a more suitable tree for the area, but always keeping the balance Nature is working to achieve.
However the remaining third of trees in a city, those planted by us, had a somewhat higher survival rate and were healthier overall. This is probably because they were more valuable specimens, and because if you plant something you tend to care for it.
So what is the best way to plant a tree? First choose a tree suitable for the area you want to plant it. You can find a tree that will grow in almost any situation. How many of you have seen or planted yourself those beautiful young blue spruce trees planted up close to a house, in front of windows or too close to driveways?
After ten or 15 years of growth they have to be cut down or moved in a very expensive maneuver. And look up and see if there are any overhead utility wires that will result in the power company wacking the top off the tree just as it gets beautiful. Give your tree room to grow. Next dig your hole twice as wide as it is deep. It should be as deep as the root system of the tree you are planting. However one of the biggest mistakes people make in planting trees is to plant them too deep.
Look for the top horizontal root, the root that goes sideways. This root should only be about 2 inches below the soil surface. Remove pots, even peat pots from the roots. Remove at least the top half of the burlap in a balled and burlapped root ball.
If you do not see that top horizontal root gently scrape away soil until you do, so you can properly place it in a hole. Removing peat pots and burlap also avoids the wicking away of moisture from the roots and lets the roots expand rapidly into the surrounding soil. Research has proven that this is the best way to get your tree growing well.
You can mix in some tree fertilizer with the soil but avoid throwing it in a heap at the bottom of the hole.
This hinders rather than encourages root growth. Water your tree after planting and keep it watered during its first year if conditions are dry.
Protect the trunk of young trees from animals including humans with mowers and weed whips. A mulch circle helps but you may need a circle of wire or a tree tube. Tree tubes are great for small deciduous trees, especially valuable ones or those that are hard to start. These are translucent fiberglass tubes with open tops that act as a semi-greenhouse, they protect trees from wind, cold and animals. They also encourage a straight, un-branched trunk until the tree is over the tube height.
Remove the tubes when the tree grows well above them, usually in a couple years.
Slide title Write your caption here. View Previous Stories. Trouble with beavers in Barry County. Jim Dull stands in the creek, waist-high in water, raking at a dam. He yanks out tree branches, moss, mud, leaves and more branches.
BOB'S TIRE CO. $ BOB'S TIRE CO DEBORAH MUTSCHLER. $3, DEBORAH MUTSCHLER. $ HORTICULTURAL TECHNOL INC. $12,
This document was uploaded by our user. The uploader already confirmed that they had the permission to publish it. Report DMCA. E-Book Overview Horticultural Reviews present state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural sciences. The emphasis is on applied topics including the production of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamental plants of commercial importance. It is a serial that appears in the form of one hardbound volume per year. Mitchell and Patricia N. Charron, Daniel J.
Exhibit Hall Opening Reception. This session is sponsored by the Decade of Behavior. Welcoming Remarks: Laura L. Presiding: Toni C.
All CAP participants have engaged the researchcommunity through their papers and presentations and are active members of the international thrips and tospovirus research community. Education in vector biology as it relates to plant pathogens.
Your session has ended. Please log in if you would like to continue. The children enjoyed the costumes and for some it brought a smile and eased the uncertainty of getting the vaccine mist. This proved to be an excellent team building activity that created positive morale and strengthened the feeling of unity within the team. Participants were provided with educational materials on maternal and child development, stress management, infant care, safe sleep and reducing the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS. Participants were also entered in a drawing for door prizes.
A rock star turned avid horticulturist yes, you read that right , Bob Mutschler dreamed of working in the horticulture field since the age of 4. At the time, Bob was teaching horticulture at Penn State as well as co-writing a book on how to run a flower shop. After retiring from his teaching career, he joined his wife in running the business, working side-by-side for many years and watching the shop grow and thrive. With a clientele that extends from the local community to customers from around the world, this plant paradise has a two-story greenhouse attached to a home that boasts room after room of beautiful, rare plants. Not only will you surround yourself with the many vibrant colorful orchids and soothing shades of greens, but the plants you gaze upon are some of the rarest that you will discover. Also rare are the fish ponds that are home to gorgeous koi fish, some appearing black in color but dazzling a cobalt blue when the sunshine hits them just right.
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science Robert T. Watson and malnutrition in the world is found in rural areas among.
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Whether it is general information or detailed, application based data on optical sensors you are looking for, in our collection of publications, sensor basics and FAQs you will find what you need. Furthermore, short tutorial videos and our instruction manuals will help you with handling your sensor system. We tested the efficacy of PreSens SensorPlugs for monitoring mammalian cell culturing processes in microfluidic bioreactors MBs with integrated sensors. We tested the efficacy of PreSens SensorPlugs for monitoring bacterial cultures in microfluidic bioreactors MBs , which is important in the context of monitoring potential….
Authoritative reference on plant protection, plant germplasm collection, prevention of invasiveness, flowering mechanisms, cultivar trialing. The leading world-wide authorities on flower breeding and genetics provide the tools and directions for future crop domestication and enhancement.
Photo by Lauren A. Here he is starting to talk about wiring. At right, at the same table, is Todd Leach of Shillington. Here he is giving a run-down of exposing the roots. She was attending with her aunt, Tara Martin of Pikeville at left. On a steamy fall day, Bob Mutschler is basking in the sunlight, spouting off wisdom about bonsai trees during a lecture that is scientific and a little sarcastic, expert and encouraging all at once.
He is responsible for coordinating research and offering strategic guidance and support for project implementation. He has Ph. His research focuses on evaluation methodologies, agricultural value chains and markets, food security in developing countries, and technology and institutional innovation for agricultural development. Sikiru holds a BS in Agriculture and M.